Exploring Computer Networks

Rathesh Prabakar
4 min readMay 7, 2020


Whatever new technologies arise, the very very basic thing we need to learn is how it works through the internet. Yeah of course everything in this world is coming under the internet. From this, I hope everyone understands the importance of computer networking. Let’s dive into the networks.

Source : Google

First thing We must learn What is protocol & What is computer networking.

Yeah protocol is nothing but a set of rules or standards that need to be followed by the computer during their communication.

Then what about computer networking ?

The name we’ve given to the full scoper of how computers communicate with each other. Networking is nothing but like our human communication.

Networking is carried out by several models. One of the important models is the TCP/IP model. It consists of five layers

  • Physical layer
  • Data Link layer
  • Network layer
  • Transport layer
  • Application layer
Image Courtesy : Coursera

To really understand networking , we need to know about all devices from cables to servers right. We will go one by one,

First I will give the basic insights about five layers of TCP/IP Model,

Physical layer : Simply it represents the physical devices that interconnect computers. This layer is all about cabling and connectors.

This layer will also includes the ,

  • Specifications for network cables.
  • Connectors that join devices

Data link layer : It is otherwise known as network interface or network access layer. Data link layer is responsible for defining a way of interpreting the signals so that network devices can easily communicate.

Network layer : It is responsible for the communication between different devices through the internet. This can be achieved by using a network device called routers. Now everyone has the confusion about data link and network layers right. While the data link layer is responsible for getting data form a single link, the network layer is responsible for getting data defined across a collection of networks. The most common protocol used in the network layer is IP(Internet Protocol). We all know that IP is the heart of the internet and most smaller networks around the world.

Transport layer : While the network layer delivers data between two individual nodes, the transport layer sorts out which client and server programs are supposed to get that data.

Common protocols used in the transport layer are TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) and UDP(User Datagram Protocol). The big difference between the two is that TCP provides mechanisms to ensure that data is reliably delivered while UDP does not.

Application layer : Last but not least, as the name specifies it is an application specific layer. The protocols used to allow you to browse the web or send receive email are some common ones including HTTPS, FTP etc.,

Simply the five layers can be depicted as ,

Image Courtesy : Coursera

Network Devices

Every computing device that we interact with on a day to day basis is a network device right?

We will see some of the basic networking devices,

Cables : We are all familiar with cables that connect different devices to each other, allowing data to be transmitted over them. Cables which we are using can mainly classified into two categories

  • Copper : Common one
  • Fiber : tiny tubes made out of glass about the width of a human hair.

Hubs : A physical layer device that allows for connections from many computers at once.

Image Courtesy : Coursera

Switches : It is also known as Network switch and primarily known as switching hub. It is a data link device which is introduced to avoid collisions in hubs.

Routers : A network layer device that knows how to forward data between independent networks. It can act as the global guide on the internet for our traffic.

Image Courtesy : Coursera

With regards,

Rathesh Prabakar




Rathesh Prabakar

A remarkable writer with catchy content writing skills. I love to share my each and every learning through blog post. Catch me on https://ratheshprabakar.tech